Metathesis in Language 2.0

Hanunóo

Language Family
Austronesian
Subgroup
Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine
Area

Summary

In numerals only, a glottal stop metathesizes with a following consonant when it would otherwise occur in preconsonantal position as a result of other processes.


In numerals only, CV metathesis is observed.


Type(s) of metathesis

Type Status Optionality Position Location
a. CC Synchronic Obligatory Non-adjacent Root-initial, root-internal
b. CV Synchronic Obligatory Adjacent Root-initial

Case types and qualities

Examples

There are six forms in Hanunóo which show metathesis (based on our survey of Conklin 1953). Three involve C/C metathesis, with a glottal stop metathesizing with the following consonant, after the deletion of the intervening vowel. Note that all words with metathesis involve numerals.

ʔusa
‘one’
kasʔa
‘once’
ʔupat
‘four’
kapʔat
‘four times’
ʔunum
‘six’
kanʔum
‘six times’
 

There are six forms in Hanunóo which show metathesis (based on our survey of Conklin 1953). Three involve root-initial C/V metathesis. Note that all words with metathesis involve numerals.

duwa
‘two’
tigudwa
‘two apiece’
tulu
‘three’
tigutlu
‘three apiece’
lima
‘five’
tigilma
‘five apiece’
 

Conditions

Metathesis applies just in case a glottal stop would otherwise occur in preconsonantal position as the result of vowel syncope triggered by prefixation.

ʔusa
‘one’
kasʔa
‘once’
 


When a consonant other than a glottal stop occurs in preconsonantal position, metathesis fails to apply.

duwa
‘two’
kadwa
*kawda
‘twice’
tulu
‘three’
katlu
*kaltu
‘thrice’
 

Motivations

Phonotactic restriction: An examination of Conklin's (1953) dictionary reveals that there are no words in which glottal stop occurs in preconsonantal position. Glottal stop occurs prevocalically (#__V, ʔagaw 'grasping'; V__V, paraʔan 'method'; C__V butʔul 'bone') and postvocalically (V__#, batiʔ 'feeling, emotion').


Symbols

Comments

Bibliography

  • Conklin, H. 1953. Hanunóo-English Vocabulary. University of California Publications in Linguistics. Volume 9. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
  • Kenstowicz, M and C. Kisseberth 1979. Generative Phonology. Academic Press.
  • Mielke, Jeff & Elizabeth Hume. 2001. Considerations of Word Recognition for Metathesis. In E.Hume, N. Smith & J. van de Weijer, Surface Syllable Structure and Segment Sequencing. Leiden: HIL. 2001.