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Database

Lama

(Region of Kande, Lama, Benin, Ghana; Niger-Congo, Gur)

Summary:
To account for the alternations between the segments of the root and those of the progressive suffix ku in CVm roots, Ourso (1989) introduces a metathesis rule.
Examples:
hom ---> 'pull' ---> i hoo~ ---> 's/he is pulling'
nam ---> 'grind' ---> i no^o~ ---> 's/he is grinding'
kpem ---> 'go home' ---> i kpo^o~ ---> 's/he is going home'

Metathesis rule (Ourso, 1989): CVm-u(1 2 3 4) ---> CVum (1 2 4 3)
Conditions:
No information currently available.
Motivation:
a. Ourso (1989)

Related Information:
a. /k/ deletion: The velar stop of the suffix deletes after a root final unrounded vowel or a root final consonant.

imperative simple   imperative continuous  
sa 'cook' saa 'keep cooking'
fal 'winnow' falu 'keep winnowing'


cf. no /k/ deletion
so' ---> 'lift' ---> i so'ku' ---> 's/he is lifting'
to' ---> 'catch' ---> i to'ku' ---> 's/he is catching'

b. /u/ deletion: The infinitive suffix 'u' deletes in CVm verbs.

hom, 'pull', hom-u' ---> ho^m, 'to pull'
cf. pe'l 'cut' pe'lu^ 'to cut'

c. Derivation of progressive forms

  /hom-ku/ /nam-ku/ /kpem-ku/
/k/ deletion hom-u nam-u kpem-u
metathesis houm naum kpeum
height assimilation hoom naom kpeom
round assimilation --- noom kpoom
nasal assimilation ho~o~m no~o~m kpo~o~m
nasal deletion ho~o~ no~o~ kpo~o~
Symbols:
^ = falling tone marker
o~ = nasalized 'o'
' = high tone marker

Last Updated: 6/14/2007
References:
eliabeth hume's home page | OSU Linguistics home page