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(Sabah, Malaysia; Austronesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian)

a. Both diachronic and synchronic metathesis of /r/ and a following vowel are found.
b. Diachronic and synchronic /l/ metathesis were posited to account for the derivation of present Bonggi forms from proto forms and that of surface forms from underlying forms, respectively.
1. /r/ metathesis
a. Diachronic Process: /r/ metathesizes with a following vowel in an unstressed syllable if the vowel precedes an alveolar stop /t, d, n/.

Putative proto-form        
/ba.rat/ /ba.art/ ['baaRt^] 'west' (Malay barat)
/Na.ran/ /Na.arn/ ['Na~a~Rdn] 'name' (Dusun Naran)

b. Synchronic Process: /r/ metathesis is observed in affixed forms.

ajar ['aDaR] 'to teach' /aDar/ + /On/ [E'DaaRdn]
-orod   'numb' /m/ + /OrOd/ ['mO~O~Rd^]

2. /l/ metathesis
a. Diachronic Process: According to Boutin (2000), present forms of some Bonggi nouns can be derived from proto-forms by the interaction of five different phonological processes; 1) /l/ metathesis; 2) palatalization of /l/; 3) geminate reduction; 4) coalescence; 5) V preplosion.

Proto form /l/ metathesis /l/ palatalization geminate reduction coalescence V preplosion
*dalan 'path' > daaln > daain > dain   > [dajdn]
*talun 'forest' > tauln > tauin   > toin > [tojdn] ~ [te jdn]

b. Synchronic Process: When the suffix '-On' is added to a stem ending in /l/, /l/ palatalizes to /i/ and /O/ is subsequently deleted. Boutin (2000) accounts for this in terms of /l/ metathesis, /l/-palatalization to [i] and vowel reduction.

Unerlying form /tOmbOl/ + /On/
/l/ metathesis tOmbOOln
Palatalization of /l/ tOmbOOin
Tensing of mid vowel tOmbooin
Geminate reduction tOmboin
Offglide formation tOmbojn
Stress tOm'bojn
Neutralization tEm'bojn
Labialization tEm'bwojn
Nasal preplosion tEm'bwojdn
Derived form [tEm'bwojdn]
No information currently available.
No information currently available.
Related Information:
a. Word final nasals
When a preceding vowel is nasalized, word final nasals are realized as simple [m], [n], [N].

[ Ti'Na~a~N]

When a preceding vowel is non-nasalized, word final nasals are preploded.

'type of shellfish'
'Sandakan' (place name)
R = flap
t^ = unreleased voiceless alveolar stop
N = velar nasal
' = stress marker
V~ = nasalized vowel
bm = preploded bilabial nasal
dn = preploded alveolar nasal
kN = preploded velar nasal
D = voiced palatal affricate
O = mid back rounded lax vowel (open 'o')
Cw = labialized consonant
E = mid central lax vowel ('schwa')
T = dentalized 't'

Last Updated: 6/20/2007
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