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Zoque

(Mexico; Mixe-Zoque, Zoque)

Summary:
a. A palatal glide + consonant sequence, due to morpheme concatenation, is pronounced with the glide following the consonant.
b. A glottal stop and nasal or liquid reverse positions.
Examples:
I. When /y/ precedes a consonant, the glide is realized after the consonant.

y-pata
pyata
‘his mat’
y-buro
byuro
‘his burro’
y-faha
fyaha
‘his belt’
y-mula
myula
‘his mule’
y-wakas
wyakas
‘his cow’

y-kama
kyama
‘his cornfield’
y-gayu
gyayu
‘his rooster’

y-?aci
?yaci
‘his older brother’
y-hayah
hyayah
‘her husband’

When the seuqence /yh/ precedes a bilabial consonant /p/, /m/ or velar consonant /k/, the glide is realized after the final consonant of the cluster.

kamayh ‘oak’ + -pE
kamahpyE
‘oaken’
kamayh ‘oak’ + moni ‘mushroom’
kamahmyoni
‘species of mushroom’
kamayh ‘oak’ + kuy ‘tree’
kamahkyuy
‘oak tree’

II. When a nasal or liquid precedes a glottal stop, the glottal stop surfaces before the consonant.

kom ‘post’ + -?aNU
ko?maNE
‘to the post’
pEn ‘man’ + -?is
pE?nis
‘of the man’
kaN ‘jaguar’ + -?is
ka?Nis
‘of the jaguar’
lugar ‘place’ + -?oyh
luga?royh
‘at the place’
perol ‘copper kettle’ + -?is
pero?lis
‘of the copper kettle’
Conditions:
The above processes occur across morpheme boundaries.
Motivation:
Palatalization (Sagey1986): Sagey (1986) argues that apparent glide/consonant metathesis in Zoque isn't metathesis at all. Rather, palatalization is involved: the vowel articulation of the glide is pronounced as a secondary palatal articulation on the following consonant.
Related Information:
a. When /y/ precedes an alveolar consonant /t/, /d/, /c/, /s/ or /n/, the alveolar consonant is palatalized (the palatal glide does not surface as a separated sound).

y-tatah
t^atah
‘his father’
y-duracEhk
nE d^uracEhku
‘it is lasting’
y-cE hk-
Cahku
‘he did it’
y-sEk
SEk
‘his beans’
y-nanah
n'anah
‘his mother’

b.. When /y/ precedes /h/ in non-initial position, the cluster /yh/ remains unchanged.

kuy ‘wood’ + ham ‘lime’
kuyham
‘ashes’
kay ‘narrow’ + hu?ti ‘thread’
kayhu?ti
‘fine thread’

c. When /y/ precedes /t/ in non-initial clusters, the /t/ is palatalized to /t^/ but the glide is not deleted.

tey ‘there’ + -tih
teyt^ih
‘right there’
kuy ‘wood’ + tEm ‘seed’
kuyt^Em
‘avocado’

d. When /y/ precedes an alveopalatal consonant /C/, /S/, /y/ deletes.

y- + Co?ngoya ‘rabbit’
Co?ngoya
‘his rabbit’
y- + Sapun ‘soap’
Sapun
‘his soap’

e. When a nasal precedes a voiceless stop /p/, /t/, /t^/, /C/, /k/, the stop changes to the corresponding voiced stop.

min 'to come' + -pa
minba
'he comes'
min 'to come' + -tam-
mindamE
'come!'
pEn 'man' + CEki 'figure'
pEnJEki
'figure of a man'
pEn 'man' + -kEki
pEngEki
'on a man'
Symbols:
t^ = voiceless alveo-palatal stop
d^ = voiced alveo-palatal stop
R = trill
E = mid central vowel ('wedge')
N = velar nasal
n' = alveo-palatal nasal
? = glottal stop
C = voiceless alveo-palatal affricate
J = voiced alveo-palatal affricate
S = voiceless aveo-palatal fricative

Last Updated: 6/19/2007
References:
eliabeth hume's home page | OSU Linguistics home page